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The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable

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The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable
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Why our human brains are awesome, and how we left our cousins, the great apes, behind: a tale of neurons and calories, and cooking.

Humans are awesome. Our brains are gigantic, seven times larger than they should be for the size of our bodies. The human brain uses 25% of all the energy the body requires each day. And it became enormous in a very short amount of time in evolution, allowing us to leave our cousins, the great apes, behind. So the human brain is special, right? Wrong, according to Suzana Herculano-Houzel. Humans have developed cognitive abilities that outstrip those of all other animals, but not because we are evolutionary outliers. The human brain was not singled out to become amazing in its own exclusive way, and it never stopped being a primate brain. If we are not an exception to the rules of evolution, then what is the source of the human advantage?

Herculano-Houzel shows that it is not the size of our brain that matters but the fact that we have more neurons in the cerebral cortex than any other animal, thanks to our ancestors' invention, some 1.5 million years ago, of a more efficient way to obtain calories: cooking. Because we are primates, ingesting more calories in less time made possible the rapid acquisition of a huge number of neurons in the still fairly small cerebral cortex—the part of the brain responsible for finding patterns, reasoning, developing technology, and passing it on through culture.

Herculano-Houzel shows us how she came to these conclusions—making "brain soup" to determine the number of neurons in the brain, for example, and bringing animal brains in a suitcase through customs. The Human Advantage is an engaging and original look at how we became remarkable without ever being special.

Why our human brains are awesome, and how we left our cousins, the great apes, behind: a tale of neurons and calories, and cooking.Humans are awesome. Our brains are gigantic, seven times larger than they should be for the size of our bodies. The human brain uses 25% of all the energy the body requires each day. And it became enormous in a very short amount of time in evolution, allowing us to leave our cousins, the great apes, behind. So the human brain is special, right? Wrong, according to Suzana Herculano-Houzel. Humans have developed cognitive abilities that outstrip those of all other animals, but not because we are evolutionary outliers. The human brain was not singled out to become amazing in its own exclusive way, and it never stopped being a primate brain. If we are not an exception to the rules of evolution, then what is the source of the human advantage?Herculano-Houzel shows that it is not the size of our brain that matters but the fact that we have more neurons in the cerebral cortex than any other animal, thanks to our ancestors' invention, some 1.5 million years ago, of a more efficient way to obtain calories: cooking. Because we are primates, ingesting more calories in less time made possible the rapid acquisition of a huge number of neurons in the still fairly small cerebral cortex—the part of the brain responsible for finding patterns, reasoning, developing technology, and passing it on through culture.Herculano-Houzel shows us how she came to these conclusions—making "brain soup" to determine the number of neurons in the brain, for example, and bringing animal brains in a suitcase through customs. The Human Advantage is an engaging and original look at how we became remarkable without ever being special.
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Product Details
Sales Rank:
99,999,999
Pages:
272
Publication Date:
03/18/2016
ISBN13:
9780262034258
Product Dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.00(h) x1.00(d)
Publisher:
MIT Press
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About the Author

Suzana Herculano-Houzel is Associate Professor in the Departments of Psychology and Biological Sciences and Associate Director for Communications of the Vanderbilt Brain Institute at Vanderbilt University.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

1 Humans Rule! 1

2 Brain Soup 21

3 Got Brains? 35

4 Not All Brains Are Made the Same 47

5 Remarkable, but Not Extraordinary 77

6 The Elephant in the Room 91

7 What Cortical Expansion? 109

8 A Body Matter? 125

9 So How Much Does It Cost? 143

10 Brains or Brawn: You Can't Have Both 173

11 Thank Cooking for Your Neurons 187

12 … But Plenty of Neurons Aren't Enough 199

Epilogue: Our Place in Nature 215

Appendix A Body Mass, Brain Mass, and Number of Neurons 217

Appendix B Scaling Rules 219

Notes 227

References 237

Index 253

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What People Are Saying
Elephants have bigger brains than humans. So why are we more intelligent? Suzana Herculano-Houzel tells how her ability to count neurons gives us a radical new understanding of brain biology. Her science is convincing, fun, and inspiring. The Human Advantage is a game-changer.

In this highly readable and entertaining book, Herculano-Houzel summarizes her unique and important body of work. Her numerous discoveries regarding the number of neurons in animal and human brains lead her to conclude that human brains are fairly typical primate brains, though they are unusually large. As fascinating as the science is her vivid account of both her research adventures and her challenges.

Beginning 1.5 million years ago with Homo erectus, Suzana Herculano-Houzel convincingly concludes that the human brain, a primate brain, owes its cognitive abilities to the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Engagingly and accessibly, she expands upon Wrangham's and Aiello'shypotheses that the brain was 'fed' by calories from cooked foods.

Elephants have bigger brains than humans. So why are we more intelligent? Suzana Herculano-Houzel tells how her ability to count neurons gives us a radical new understanding of brain biology. Her science is convincing, fun, and inspiring. The Human Advantage is a game-changer.

In this highly readable and entertaining book, Herculano-Houzel summarizes her unique and important body of work. Her numerous discoveries regarding the number of neurons in animal and human brains lead her to conclude that human brains are fairly typical primate brains, though they are unusually large. As fascinating as the science is her vivid account of both her research adventures and her challenges.

Beginning 1.5 million years ago with Homo erectus, Suzana Herculano-Houzel convincingly concludes that the human brain, a primate brain, owes its cognitive abilities to the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Engagingly and accessibly, she expands upon Wrangham's and Aiello'shypotheses that the brain was 'fed' by calories from cooked foods.

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Editorial Reviews
02/15/2016
In this engaging work, Herculano-Houzel, a biologist from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, ponders whether human brains are extraordinary. Using data mostly collected in her own laboratory via a technique she devised for accurately counting the number of neurons in brains, she concludes that “our brain is remarkable, yes—but not special in the sense of being an exception to the rules of evolution.” She goes on to explain how primate brains are configured differently from non-primate brains, with the former having a much greater density of neurons than the latter, leading to greater cognitive capabilities. She also demonstrates that among primates, great apes are the outliers, not humans: great apes have smaller brains than expected based solely on body size, while humans possess the predicted size. In a relatively short but absolutely critical section, Herculano-Houzel draws on the work of others to explain that the human brain’s neuron density likely arose because humans learned how to cook food, which permits significantly more energy to be gained from a given amount of raw material. Herculano-Houzel puts her expertise as a science journalist to good use, though her heavy reliance on statistical patterns may put off some readers. (Apr.)
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The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable
Pub. Date: 09/20/2016
Publisher: Brilliance Audio
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