Date of Birth:August 1, 1819
Place of Birth:New York, New York
Education:Attended the Albany Academy in Albany, New York, until age 15
Call me Ishmael. This resonant opening of Moby-Dick, the greatest novel in American literature, announces the narrator, Herman Melville, as he with a measure of slyness thought of himself. In the Scriptures Ishmael, a wild man sired by the overwhelming patriarch Abraham, was nevertheless the bastard son of a serving girl Hagar. The author himself was the offspring of two distinguished American families, the Melvilles of Boston and the Gansevoorts of Albany.
Melville's father cast something of a blight on the family escutcheon by his tendency to bankruptcy which passed down to his son. Dollars damn me, the son was to say over and over. When he sat down in the green landscape of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, to compose Moby-Dick he was in debt, the father of one son, and another to be born a few days after the publication of the novel in England.
Melville had published five novels previous to Moby-Dick; the first two did well, and then with the capriciousness of the public the subsequent novels failed to please. He was a known literary figure with a fading reputation. How he came upon the courage to undertake the challenging creation of the epical battle between a sea creature, a white whale called Moby Dick, and an old captain from Nantucket by the name of Ahab is one of literature's triumphant mysteries. Add to that, as one reads, that he was only thirty-two years old.
Ten years before, in 1841, he had signed up as a common seaman on the whaling vessel Acushnet bound for the South Seas. Young Ishmael was drawn by the lure of the sea and by the wonder of the whale itself, the Leviathan, the monarch of the deep, "one grand hooded phantom, like a snow hill in the air." Until the discovery of petroleum oil in 1859 and Thomas Edison's invention of the incandescent lamp in 1879, whaling was a major commercial occupation in New England. Fortunes were made, grand houses were built, often with a "widow's walk" on the roof that testified to the great dangers of the enterprise. For the crew, service on a whaler was a drastic life of unremitting labor; foul, crowded quarters; bad food in scanty servings; contractual terms for years at miserable wages; brutalized companions picked up from all the ports of the world; tyrannical captains practicing a "sultanism" which Melville abhorred. A ship afloat is after all a prison. Melville was on three whalers in his four years at sea and from each, as we read in Typee and Omoo, the struggle is to escape, as he did when the boats anchored near exotic islands. He wrote about the misery of the whaling life, but not about whaling itself until he came to Moby-Dick. His imaginary whaler, the Pequod, death bound as it is, would be called, for an ordinary seaman, an agreeable berth. Ahab has no interest left beyond his internal struggle with one whale.
Still, there is whaling, the presumption of it. When a whale is sighted small boats are detached from the main vessel and the men engage in a deadly battle to try to match, with flying harpoons, the whale's immense strength and desperation. If the great thing is captured, the deck of the main ship becomes an abattoir of blood and guts. The thick blubber is to be stripped, the huge head to be drained of its oils for soothing ambergris, for candles; the bones of the carcass make their way into corsets and umbrellas and scrimshaw trinkets. Moby-Dick is a history of cetology, an encylopedic telling of the qualities of the fin-back, the right whale, the hyena whale, the sperm whale, the killer whale, classified by size in mock academic form as folio, octavo, and so on.
Information about a vanished world is one thing, but, above all else, this astonishing book is a human tragedy of almost supernatural suspensiveness, written in a rushing flow of imaginative language, poetical intensity, metaphor and adjective of consuming beauty. It begins on the cobbled streets of New Bedford, where Ishmael is to spend a few days before boarding the Pequod in Nantucket. The opening pages have a boyish charm as he is brought to share a bed with a fellow sailor, the harpooner Queequeg, an outrageously tattoed "primitive" who will be his companion throughout the narrative. Great ships under sail gave the old ports a rich heritage of myth, gossip, exaggeration, and rhetorical flights. Ishmael, on a Sunday, visits a whaleman's chapel to hear the incomparable sermon by Father Mapple on Jonah and the whale, a majestic interlude, one of many in this torrential outburst of fictional genius.
As Ishmael and Queequeg proceed to Nantucket, the shadows of the plot begin to fall upon the pages. The recruits are interviewed by two retired sailors who will struggle to express the complicated nature of Captain Ahab. We learn that he has lost a leg, chewed off by a whale, and thus the fated voyage of the Pequod begins. Ahab has lost his leg to a white whale Moby Dick and is consumed with a passion for retribution. He will hunt the singular whale as a private destiny in the manner of ancient kings in a legendary world. However, Ahab is real and in command. The chief mate, Starbuck, understands the folly of the quest, the danger of it, and, as a thoughtful man longing to return to his wife and children, he will speak again and again the language of reason. "Vengeance on a dumb beast that simply smote thee from the blindest instinct! Madness! To be enraged with a dumb thing, Captain Ahab, seems blasphemous."
The necessity of Starbuck's human distance from the implacable imperative of Ahab's quest illustrates the brilliant formation of this harrowing tale. But it is Ahab's story, his destiny, and, if on the one hand, he is a shabby, sea-worn sailor long mesmerized by mercurial oceans, he too has a wife at home and a child of his old age. We learn, as the story proceeds, that on a time ashore after his terrible wounding, he had fallen and by way of his whalebone leg been unmanned. He has suffered an incapacity not to be peacefully borne by one who in forty years had spent only three on land. Ahab knows the wild unsuitability of his nature, his remove from the common life.
EtymologyExtractsChapter 1. LoomingsChapter 2. The Carpet BagChapter 3. The Spouter-InnChapter 4. The CounterpaneChapter 5. BreakfastChapter 6. The StreetChapter 7. The ChapelChapter 8. The PulpitChapter 9. The SermonChapter 10. A Bosom FriendChapter 11. NightgownChapter 12. BiographicalChapter 13. WheelbarrowChapter 14. NantucketChapter 15. ChowderChapter 16. The ShipChapter 17. The RamadanChapter 18. His MarkChapter 19. The ProphetChapter 20. All AstirChapter 21. Going AbroadChapter 22. Merry ChristmasChapter 23. The Lee SHoreChapter 24. The AdvocateChapter 25. Postscript Chapter 26. Knights and SquiresChapter 27. Knights and SquiresChapter 28. AhabChapter 29. Enter Ahab; to him, StubbChapter 30. The PipeChapter 31. Queen MabChapter 32. CetologyChapter 33. The SpecksynderChapter 34. The Cabin TableChapter 35. The Mast-HeadChapter 36. The Quarter-Deck. Ahab and allChapter 37. SunsetChapter 38. DuskChapter 39. First Night-WatchChapter 40. Forecastle—MidnightChapter 41. Moby DickChapter 42. The Whiteness of the WhaleChapter 43. Hark!Chapter 44. The ChartChapter 45. The AffidavitChapter 46. SurmisesChapter 47. The Mat-MakerChapter 48. The First LoweringChapter 49. The HyenaChapter 50. Ahab's Boat and Crew—FedallahChapter 51. The Spirit-SpoutChapter 52. The Pequod meets the AlbatrossChapter 53. The GamChapter 54. The Town Ho's StoryChapter 55. Monstrous Pictures of WhalesChapter 56. Less Erroneous Pictures of WhalesChapter 57. Of Whales in Paint, in teeth, &c.Chapter 58. BritChapter 59. SquidChapter 60. The LineChapter 61. Stubb kills a WhaleChapter 62. The DartChapter 63. The Crotch Chapter 64. Stubb's SupperChapter 65. The Whale as a DishChapter 66. The Shark MassacreChapter 67. Cutting InChapter 68. The BlanketChapter 69. The FuneralChapter 70. The SphynxChapter 71. The Pequod meets the Jeroboam. Her StoryChapter 72. The Monkey-ropeChapter 73. Stubb & Flask kill a Right WhaleChapter 74. The Sperm Whale's HeadChapter 75. The Right Whale's HeadChapter 76. The Battering RamChapter 77. The Great Heidelburgh TunChapter 78. Cistern and BucketsChapter 79. the PrairieChapter 80. The NutChapter 81. The Pequod meets the VirginChapter 82. The Honor and Glory of WhalingChapter 83. Jonah Historically RegardedChapter 84. PitchpolingChapter 85. The FountainChapter 86. The TailChapter 87. The Grand ArmadaChapter 88. Schools & SchoolmastersChapter 89. Fast Fish and Loose FishChapter 90. Heads or TailsChapter 91. The Pequod meets the Rose BudChapter 92. AmbergrisChapter 93. The CastawayChapter 94. A Squeeze of the HandChapter 95. The CassockChapter 96. The Try-WorksChapter 97. The LampChapter 98. Stowing Down & Clearing UpChapter 99. The DoubloonChapter 100. The Pequod meets the Samuel Enderby of LondonChapter 101. The DecanterChapter 102. A Bower in the ArsacidesChapter 103. Measurement of the Whale's SkeletonChapter 104. The Fossil WhaleChapter 105. Does the Whale Diminish?Chapter 106. Ahab's LegChapter 107. The CarpenterChapter 108. The Deck. Ahab and the CarpenterChapter 109. The Cabin. Ahab and StarbuchChapter 110. Queequeg in his CoffinChapter 111. The PacificChapter 112. The BlacksmithChapter 113. The ForgeChapter 114. The GilderChapter 115. The Pequod meets the BachelorChapter 116. The Dying WhaleChapter 117. The Whale-WatchChapter 118. The QuadrantChapter 119. the CandlesChapter 120. The DeckChapter 121. Midnight, on the ForecastleChapter 122. Midnight, AloftChapter 123. The MusketChapter 124. The NeedleChapter 125. The Log and LineChapter 126. The Life-BuoyChapter 127. Ahab and the CarpenterChapter 128. The Pequod meets the RachelChapter 129. The Cabin. Ahab and PipChapter 130. The HatChapter 131. The Pequod meets the DelightChapter 132. The SymphonyChapter 133. The Chase. First DayChapter 134. The Chase. Second DayChapter 135. The Chase. Third DayEpilogueEditorial AppendixHistorical NoteTextual Record Note on the Text Discussions of Adopted Readings List of Emendations Report of Line-End Hyphenation List fo Substantive VariantsRelated Documents Melville's Notes (1849-51) in a Shakespeare Volume Melville's Notes in Chase's Narrative of the Essex Melville's Acshnet Crew Memorandum The Hubbard Copy of The Whale The Jones Copy of Moby-Dick and the Harper Whale Title Page
2. How does the presence of Queequeg, particularly his status as a "savage," inform the novel? How does Melville depict this cultural clash?
3. How does whaling as an industry function metaphorically throughout the novel? Where does man fit in in this scenario?
4. Melville explores the divide between evil and virtue, justice and vengeance throughout the novel. What, ultimately, is his conclusion? What is Ahab's?
5. What do you think of the role, if any, played by religion in the novel? Do you think religious conventions are replaced or subverted in some way? Discuss.
6. Discuss the novel's philosophical subtext. How does this contribute to the basic plot involving Ahab's search for the whale? Is this Ishmael's purpose in the novel?
7. Discuss the role of women in the novel. What does their conspicuous absence mean in the overall context of the novel?